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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 193-199

Role of oral lactoferrin as a source of iron supplementation in correction of anemia in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease stages 2–4

1 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Ministry of Health, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohamed S El-Farsy
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Children’s Hospital, PO Box 11566, Abbassyia, Cairo
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jesnt.jesnt_22_21

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Background Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have multiple risk factors for anemia such as primary erythropoietin deficiency, blood loss, decreased red blood cell (RBC) survival, bone marrow suppression, iron deficiency, inflammation and infection, malnutrition, hyperparathyroidism, vitamin B12 and folate deficiency, aluminum toxicity, and carnitine deficiency. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral bovine lactoferrin on patients with iron deficiency with CKD stages 2–4. Patients and methods This follow-up cohort clinical study was conducted on children with CKD in the conservative clinic, Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Children’s Hospital, Ain Shams University. It included 45 pediatric patients with CKD stages from 2 to 4 for 6 months without a control group. This is a follow-up case study in which all the included patients were on erythropoietin therapy ranging from 150 to 300 IU/kg once per week. The patients were subjected to history and laboratory evaluation, including hemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, serum ferritin, and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), which were done for the patients at baseline and 6 months after treatment with bovine lactoferrin for 6 months. Results Blood Hb and RBC volume were significantly increased beginning from first month after oral lactoferrin therapy, serum iron and serum ferritin were significantly increased 6 months after intervention, and serum TIBC was significantly decreased after intervention. The current study had shown no significant difference between males and females regarding laboratory changes 6 months after intervention. Laboratory improvements were significantly lowest among cases with stage 4, followed by stage 3, and the highest among cases with stage 2. There was a decrease in all anemia clinical manifestations after 6 months of lactoferrin administration; the differences were significant only in easy fatigability, constipation, and gastrointestinal upset, which were the most frequent adverse effects. Conclusion Oral lactoferrin was found to be effective in treating iron-deficiency anemia regarding blood Hb, blood RBCs, serum iron, serum ferritin, and TIBC in association with erythropoietin therapy. The effect declines with the progression of CKD.

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