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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 216-223

Pattern of vascular access-related infection in hemodialysis patients

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Noha Mohamed Elkohly
Internal medicine and nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, 21647
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jesnt.jesnt_26_21

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Background Vascular access-related infections (VARI) represent a substantial burden for patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) that is unfortunately inevitable. The spectrum of causative organisms varies between different regions and centers, so it is necessary for each dialysis unit to have its database. This prospective descriptive multicenter study was conducted over a 6-month duration to delineate the pattern of VARI among patients undergoing HD units of Alexandria University Hospitals, and to determine the possible relationship between VARI, type of vascular access, pattern of causative organisms, and various risk factors. Materials and methods The study enrolled all patients with documented clinical and bacteriological evidence of VARI. Infection incidence-rate event/1000 dialysis session (ds) was calculated. Results During the study period, 877 HD patients were approached. A total of 66 VARI episodes were identified in 62 patients, with 58 bloodstream infection (BSI) episodes and 8 local-access infections, with an overall incidence rate of 4.64/1000 ds. About 64% of isolated organisms were Gram-negative bacilli, 33.3% Gram-positive cocci, and 2.8% fungi. The most frequent isolated pathogens were Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Conclusion VARI rate was higher in HD patients with temporary central venous catheter compared with permanent tunneled catheters. Gram-negative microorganisms and MRSA were the most frequent identified organisms. Creation of arteriovenous fistula should not be delayed to avoid the use of temporary catheters, which carry high risk of VARI.

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